šŸ– Sociocultural Influences on Gambling and Alcohol Use Among Native Americans in the United States

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See Article History. Alternative Title: Native American gaming Notablyā€”and unlike gambling operations run by non-Indiansā€”tribal casinos are required by law.


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The Social and Economic Impact of Native American Casinos. Article Ā· September with Reads.


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Native American casinos are starting to appear in almost every state in /article/ā€‹/things-you-need-know-about-indian-reservation-.


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Native American gaming industry and possibilities the future may hold for America's remain far beyond the scope and focus of any single journal article. Still.


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Article 3. The Law and Economics of Native American. Casinos. Paul H. Brietzke. Valparaiso University School of Law. Teresa L. Kline. Valparaiso.


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The Social and Economic Impact of Native American Casinos. Article Ā· September with Reads.


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In recent decades, there has been a rapid growth of gambling on and off Native American lands. The National Indian Gaming Commission estimates more than.


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Barbara Wells: Tribal casinos improve political strength and quality of life for some Native people, but This article is more than 9 years old.


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Article 2. The Economic Impact of Native American. Gaming: Cost-Benefit Analysis of the. Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation. Lisa Borromeo. The Georgeā€‹.


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The second part of this article is (except where noted) based on Stephen L. Pevar's The Rights of Indians and Tribes: The Basic ACLU Guide to Indian and Tribal.


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History of Indian Casinos

The past-year prevalence of gambling among Native Americans is similar to the rate for non-Native Americans in the US 80 vs. In SONAG, the random-digit dial RDD landline phone numbers were selected from telephone exchanges within counties with a high percent of Native Americans, while the wireless phone numbers were selected from billing centers in counties with a high percent of Native Americans. These past 12 months-items were: borrowed money or sold anything to get money to gamble; bet more than you could really afford to lose; gambling caused you any health problems, including stress or anxiety; and gambling caused any financial problems for you and your household. Problem gambling is lowest for those who do not speak a tribal language at all and the lowest rates of gambling and problem gambling are among those with the lowest number of Native American activities. Younger age was also associated with a significantly increased odds of having alcohol abuse or dependence in the past year. Combining the two datasets, based on the same methods and questions, yields a diverse sample of Native Americans in the US. It is clear that gambling opportunities have increased in and around Native lands. The representative sample contains 38 Native Americans. Respondents were asked the frequency of past-year gambling on 15 types of gambling, including 1 office pools, and charitable small stakes gambling; 2 lottery; 3 pulltabs; 4 internet gambling; 5 casino, riverboat or cruise ship; 6 horse or dog track; 7 horses or dogs, off track; 8 gambling machines, not in a casino; 9 cards, not in a casino; 10 games of skill, e. Tribal elders have reported that many problems are related to a loss of traditional beliefs and culture because tribal values are almost universal in prohibiting alcohol and other substance abuse Szlemko et al. Examples of the items are: I have spent time trying to find out more about being Native American, such as Native American history, traditions, and customs; I am active in organizations or social groups that include mostly Native American members; I have a strong sense of belonging to my Native American community; I participate in Native American cultural practices, such as special food, music, or customs; and I feel a strong attachment toward my Native American community. Whitbeck et al. Beverages included: beer, malt liquor, wine, fortified wine, wine cooler and liquor. Frequency distributions were run for each of the four dependent variables comparing the present Native American sample with the US national sample without Native Americans. This present study is an initial step to determine the patterns of gambling, problem gambling and alcohol use and abuse among a diverse sample of Native Americans spread across the US. These findings highlight the need for further investigation into the influence of cultural factors on Native American gambling. Only two variables were significant in predicting any gambling in the past year. In the multivariate analysis with all demographic and other independent variables controlled, the greater the Native American cultural orientation, the more likely respondents are to be problem gamblers. In recent decades, there has been a rapid growth of gambling on and off Native American lands. The DIS for pathological gambling contains 13 items that map into 10 criteria, such as preoccupation with gambling and gambling to escape problems. Two logistic regressions were performed with two levels of gambling involvementā€” any gambling and problem gamblingā€”as the dichotomous dependent variables and demographic and Native American factors as the independent variables Table 3. In spite of the significant involvement of Native Americans in gambling enterprises, there is very little empirical data on the prevalence and patterns of gambling and problem gambling among Native Americans in the US. However, these findings were based on only 29 Native Americans in a national sample of 2, Native Americans comprised only 1. The same three items were repeated for living in the White-American way. The present paper is based on a combined sample from two comparable Native American general population subsamples. Alcohol consumption was assessed by a series of quantity and frequency questions for various alcoholic beverages. Each measure was based on three items with a four point Likert scale, i. Thus, the preponderance of the evidence suggests that Native American traditional cultural identification is a protective factor for addictive behaviors. We hypothesize that traditional Native American cultural identity will be a protective factor against problem gambling as well as alcohol abuse. However, Native Americans have over twice the rate of problem gambling as the US sample 18 vs. This average consumption variable was recoded to create the dichotomous variable indicating any alcohol use in the past year. Although Native Americans have a lower rate of past-year alcohol use than the US population 47 vs. Respondents are then asked if they had three or more criteria in any month period lifetime dependence and in the past 12 months current dependence. Census for the population 18 years and older obtained from the U. Thus, there is a serious lack of US general population survey data of Native Americans to assess gambling behaviors and problem gambling in this important group. Because of high correlations between many of the Native American cultural measures i. The respondent is asked if there was ever a month period in which the consequences occurred more than once lifetime abuse , and also whether they occurred more than once in the past 12 months current abuse. Two logistic regressions were performed with two levels of alcohol involvementā€”any alcohol use in the past year and alcohol abuse or dependenceā€”as the dichotomous dependent variables and demographic and Native American factors as the independent variables Table 4. Although there are 4. The tribes which engage in gambling operate more than casinos and bingo halls throughout 28 states which generate large economic benefits of for Native American communities e. Responses to these questions, along with the alcohol content of each beverage, were used to calculate the respondent's average alcohol consumption in ounces of ethanol per day. This study found self-reported gambling convenience to be a significant predictor of problem gambling which is consistent with findings from the US general population which confirm that gambling availability has a significant effect on overall gambling and problem gambling Welte et al. To our knowledge, there are no studies which quantitatively address the relationships between traditional culture among Native Americans and problem gambling and alcohol abuse while taking into account important sociodemographic factors. Six variables were standardized and added together to form a composite measure of Native American orientation. The indigenous group had a In the first national US survey of adults Welte et al. The variable, any gambling, was a dichotomous measure defined as gambling at least once in the past year on any of the 15 types of gambling. The alcohol abuse questions cover 12 negative consequences fights while drinking, traffic accident while drinking, etc. From the limited number of regional surveys of gambling among Native American adults, the rates of problem gambling appear to be higher among Native Americans than in other groups. These are the opposite effects from those hypothesized. From these simple descriptive analyses, without controls for demographic factors, there are some indications that more traditional Native American characteristics are actually associated with more gambling and more gambling problems. The higher the score on the composite Native American orientation scale comprised of Native identity, exposure to reservation life, live more by Native way, participation in Native American activities, speak a tribal language and having a Native American name , the higher the odds of being a problem gambler. Each item was answered using a four item scaleā€”strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree and strongly disagree. As for overall gambling behavior, younger aged adults were significantly more likely than older adults to have had alcohol in the past year. None of the Native American factors were significant in predicting alcohol use or abuse. In the problem gambling logistic regression, lower SES was significantly associated with an increased odds of problem gambling. Similarly, those who responded that they did not live by the Native American way and those who indicated that they lived a lot by the White-American way had the lowest rates of problem gambling as compared to their counterparts in other groups. This list of Native American activities and ceremonies was adapted from Zimmerman et al. Native Americans reported lower rates of overall drinking in the past year than the US population 47 vs. For instance, individuals who grew up on a reservation or currently live on a reservation have higher rates of gambling and problem gambling than their non-reservation counterparts. A item Native American identity scale was developed based on previous work of Phinney and Moran and Bussey The set of questions asked how being Native American affects the respondent's feeling and behaviors. The hypothesis was not confirmed. Four non-redundant items of the nine items in the CPGI were selected for this study.

Gambling opportunities on and near Native American lands have increased in recent decades; yet there is a lack of research examining the patterns of problem gambling and alcohol abuse among Native Americans in the US.

Logistic regression analysis, with problem gambling as the dependent variable, revealed that lower socioeconomic status is significantly associated with an increased odds of problem gambling for Native Americans.

Table 2 gives descriptive information regarding the four dependent variablesā€”past year gambling, problem gambling, any alcohol use and articles on native american casinos abuse or dependenceā€” according to key Native American variables.

Counter to the hypothesis, the higher the score on the Native American orientation, the higher the odds of being a problem gambler. They argued that identification with Native American culture and with majority culture are independent of each other rather than at opposite ends of a continuum; and identification with either the minority or majority culture is a source of strength.

Although there has been very little casino malta miglior on gambling among Native Americans, there is a body of research examining alcohol use among Native Americans.

None of the Native American factors was significant in predicting alcohol abuse. Traditional Native American cultural identity may be a protective factor for problem gambling and alcohol abuse among Native Americans.

Traditional culture may be seen as a source of strength or it can be seen as creating a sense of inadequacy when socialization to articles on native american casinos majority society contradicts traditional Native American articles on native american casinos.

However, the effect of Native American cultural orientation on problem gambling holds even with gambling convenience and the geocoded variable, having a casino within 30 miles of residence, taken into account.

The unit of measurement for the landline sample was the household, but for the wireless sample, it was the individual. Telephone interviews were conducted with Native American adults aged 18 years and older across the US. Two measures were derivedā€”living life in the Native American way and living life in the White-American way. These findings, in the context of the rapid expansion of commercial gambling on Native American reservations, quite naturally lead to an interest in the study of both alcohol abuse and problem gambling among the same subgroups of Native Americans. The SES variable was scaled from one to ten see Welte et al. The frequency of participating in Native American activities during the past 12 months was assessed with a list of 16 items including Native American dancing, seasonal feasts, naming ceremonies, healing ceremonies, pow-wows. An overall gambling frequency variable was derived by summing the frequency of these types of gambling. In both studies, respondent's survey data were linked to geocoded geographic data including distance from the respondent's home to major gambling venues, e. Logistic regressions with any gambling and problem gambling in the past year as the dependent variables and demographic factors and Native American factors as the independent variables. In fact, a consistent pattern of findings, directly opposite from those hypothesized for problem gambling, emerged from this study. Thus, most of the individual variables measuring traditional Native American culture are associated with more gambling or problem gambling than those respondents less involved in traditional Native American culture. A series of Native American-specific questions are further reported in Table 2 relative to the hypothesis that traditional Native American culture and identity are protective factors against problem gambling and alcohol abuse. With recent characterization of problem gambling as an addictive disorder along with substance use disorders American Psychiatric Association , it is important to examine both problem gambling and alcohol abuse in the same population studies while taking into account important demographic factors such as gender, age and socioeconomic status. In addition to determining the patterns and correlates of problem gambling and alcohol abuse among a diverse sample of Native Americans in the US, we will examine the effects of cultural identity and traditionalism on problem gambling and alcohol abuse. Native Americans are exposed to both their traditional cultures and to the broader US culture. Population studies have shown that problem gambling and alcohol abuse have a high co-occurrence e. These measures were expanded and adapted from the work of Oetting and Beauvais and Moran et al. The four response choices ranged from very inconvenient to very convenient. SES was derived based on three equally weighted variablesā€”respondent's years of education, occupational prestige and family income. The gambling convenience variable was based on four self-report items asking how convenient it is for you to: buy lottery tickets, play bingo, play a video gambling or slot machine and visit a horse or dog tract. This same pattern does not apply for most of the bivariate relationships pertaining to alcohol use and abuse. Further, living by the White way of life was associated with a significantly decreased odds of being a problem gambler over and above the other variables in the analysis. Oetting and Beauvais presented an orthogonal cultural identification theory for Native American youth. Perceived gambling convenience was also significantly associated with an increased odds of being a problem gambler.